Fluency with basic math facts is fostered through instruction that highlights strategies for remembering facts, focuses on making sense, and integrates mathfact learning into other aspects of math learning, such as developing computational skills. Repeated practice, or “drill”, by itself may improve speed, but it does not contribute to understanding and it is not sufficient to guarantee immediate recall. Strategies such as learning related math facts together – for instance, “× 5 is half of × 10” – enable students to understand the interconnectedness of math facts and also make it easier to remember them.
– Focusing on the Fundamentals of Math – A Teacher’s Guide, p.3
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Text Resources
This curated list of documents have been selected to help you gain a deeper understanding of the above selection from “Focusing on the Fundamentals of Math – A Teachers Guide”. Each link will take you directly to the relevant section within the document.
Differentiating Mathematics Instruction – Capacity Building Series 

A Guide to Effective Instruction in Mathematics, K6, Number Sense and Numeration Vol 1, The Big Ideas 

Learning Mathematics vs Following “Rules”: The Value of StudentGenerated Methods 

Paying Attention to Proportional Reasoning 

A Guide to Effective Instruction in Mathematics Gr. 13 Number Sense and Numeration 

A Guide to Effective Instruction in Mathematics K6, Vol 5, Teaching Basic Facts and Multidigit Computations 